Planning to introduce money
You need to engage in a great deal of practical work with money so that the pupil becomes confident in:
- recognising and naming coins
- valuing coins appropriately
- exchanging smaller coins for larger coins
- offering the nearest correct larger coin in a transaction
- combining coins to make amounts within one pound
Included are some possible Individual Education Programme steps within some of these targets. The staff will need to modify these for the current understanding and rate of progress either writing in intermediate steps or working through them much more quickly depending on the rate of progress.
Target: to value coins to one pound.
If the child has difficulty picking up and handling coins use double-sided tape to attach them to small household sponges.
Always take the scouring pad off the back of the sponge before use.
Always check that the child does not take items to his or her mouth before using sponges.
Use real money and with real or very realistic objects. As a reward the 1p could always be a sweet and left to the last request so that the child could eat it!
Create a basket of real and realistic items appropriately priced and labelled on the underside.
Get the pupil to assist with labelling and valuing the items. Do this over several sessions naming two items on the first day and returning to them the second day adding more items only as they are named and priced.
- 1p smartie, chocolate button, skittle, fruit pastille
- 2p black jack, fruitella, square of chocolate, boiled sweet
- 5p crayon, end of pencil, small rubber, small toy from lucky bag
- 10p pencil, felt tip pen, short ruler, large rubber, toy soldier
- 20p small can of beans, small bouncy ball, small candle, stamp, small crayon set
- 50p can of soup, small can of fruit, bar of chocolate (use substitute!), pen set
- £1 items found in pound shop
Steps within this target
Sort the coins into silver and bronze.
Sort the coins by size and shape.
Name the coins. Get the pupil to point to coins when named, ask them to name coins when pointed to.
Strategy where the child cannot remember the denominations of the coins get him or her to give them real names like Harry or Tess. Strange as it may seem children can remember the characteristics of these personalized coins and can attach value to them when they are well remembered!
Bring items from the basket. Start with one item of each price. Show higher priced item. Ask “which coin buys this?” (The child indicates a coin.) Ask the child to name the coin then check the underside of the item. If the child is right she puts the item in the shopping basket. If wrong she returns it to the shop. If more than one child is playing have sufficient items for each child. The child gets to eat the last item!
As the games progress, send the child across the room to get items and then ask for more than one item. Give 1p and 5p and ask the child to come back with two items. A ‘shopkeeper’ at the point of sale prevents cheating! A partner can be engaged to aid mobility.
Target to exchange coins within 10p.
- 2 x 1p
- 5 x 1p
- 10 x 1p
- 2 x 5p
- 5 x 2p
Only work with mixed values at this stage if the child is very confident. By this stage the child should be confident at naming coins and at buying goods at value.
First test for generalized knowledge. Ask the child to ‘buy’ a 2p item but only present him/her with four individual pennies. If the child confidently picks up two of the coins and offers them - move on! In the event of success repeat with 5 X 1p and 10 X 1p until the concept or counting fails.
Start below the level where the child fails to ensure success.
Give a group of pennies one or two more than he needs so that he has to count.
If he is unsuccessful at any level:
Match real coins to real coins.
Match real coins to outlines of real coins
Exchange money as part of bank.
Play cards for money and count up at the end exchanging coins for larger denominations to see who wins.
Give coins as rewards and exchange for larger denominations at the end of each day and week.
Making these activities fun but in a highly structured and successful way should help the child to grasp the concept of money. Involve family members in providing out of school activities in support.