Universal Credit (UC) has replaced 6 main means-tested benefits for most people. We refer to these benefits as ‘legacy benefits’.
If you’re receiving a severe disability premium (SDP) or within the past month have been entitled to a benefit which includes SDP, you cannot apply for Universal Credit. Instead you will be able to claim a legacy benefit.
If you claim Universal Credit, you’re likely to get free school meals for your children. If you apply on or after 1 April 2018, your household income must be less than £7,400 a year (after tax and not including any benefits you get). If your child is currently eligible for free school meals, they’ll remain eligible until they finish the phase of schooling (primary or secondary) they’re in on 31 March 2022.
Universal Credit does not automatically entitle you to free prescriptions and dental fees. It’s important to check before you claim that you meet the eligibility criteria.
Your Universal Credit award includes housing costs. You will be responsible for paying your rent to your landlord.
No premiums in Universal Credit. You will not be entitled to a higher rate of Universal Credit because you get Personal Independence Payment, Disability Living Allowance or Attendance Allowance. You will get extra money if you have a limited capability for work (if you claimed before 3 April 2017) or limited capability for work-related activities, or you’re a carer.
There is no permitted work in Universal Credit as there is in ESA. Unless you’re receiving the Limited Capability for Work-Related Activity element, you will be encouraged to do some work and will be allowed to keep more of your earnings before Universal Credit is tapered off. These are known as Work allowances, which are higher if you do not have any housing costs paid.
Eligibility for Child Tax Credits and Working Tax Credits is based on your income but not your savings or capital.
Universal Credit is fully means-tested. You will not qualify for any help with Universal Credit if you have savings of £16,000 or more.
If you’re part of the Move to Universal Credit and you have capital above £16,000, any excess will be disregarded for 12 months. This only applies to claimants who are part of the managed migration process and not those who move onto Universal Credit following a change in circumstances.
Under ESA, disabled students who receive DLA or PIP who applied for income-related ESA had an automatic limited capability for work. Under Universal Credit, there is no automatic limited capability for work for disabled students. You cannot qualify for Universal Credit if you’re in education, unless you have limited capability for work and PIP daily living component.
The DWP is running a pilot scheme to move 10,000 people on to Universal Credit. Moving to Universal Credit in this way is called Managed Migration. If you’re receiving a legacy benefit, you will receive a letter inviting you to claim UC. You can continue to claim legacy benefits until this time unless you have a ‘change in circumstances’.
be at least 18 years old (or aged 16 to 17 in certain cases)
have not reached the qualifying age for Pension Credit. If you’re a mixed age couple with a person over the state pension age and the other under, you'll need to claim Universal Credit.
live in Great Britain
not be subject to immigration control
not be in education, with some exceptions, such as you’re responsible for a child or you’re disabled and entitled to DLA or PIP and have limited capability for work
have accepted a ‘claimant commitment’
meet the financial conditions
For joint claims, both people are claimants and must both meet the criteria.
You will only receive Universal Credit if your income and capital are low enough. If you have capital between £6,000 and £16,000, your Universal Credit will reduce by £4.35 per calendar month for every £250 you have above £6,000. If you have capital of £16,000 or more, you will not get Universal Credit.
At an early stage in your Universal Credit claim, your work coach will ask you to attend a meeting. This is to discuss what you and your partner must do to qualify and continue qualifying for Universal Credit.
These requirements are based on your caring responsibilities, and on your own work capability (considering disability and illness). If you’re the lead carer of your children, your claimant commitment will be based on the age of your youngest child.
The 4 groups are:
No work requirements if you are caring for a disabled person for 35 hours per week or you are the lead carer of a child under 1. This is like ESA support group.
Work interview requirements only if you are responsible for a child who is age between 1 and 16 (18 if they have extra care needs)
Work preparation requirement for people with limited capability for work. In this group, you must get ready for work, additional work or better paid work. You may have to attend training courses, prepare a CV or take part in the Work Programme. This is like ESA work-related activity group.
Work search requirement means you must look for work and apply for jobs 35 hours per week, unless disability, illness or caring responsibilities mean that your hours of work search should be less than this. This is like Jobseeker's Allowance.
Even if you are in full-time work, the DWP work coach may think that you could earn more. They will compare your earnings with your personal earnings threshold. This is often the National Minimum Wage times 35 hours or a reduced number of hours if you have caring responsibilities or disability issues.
How Universal Credit is calculated
The DWP calculates the maximum amount of Universal Credit by adding together a standard list of allowances and elements. These are the basic amounts which the law says you need to live on. These are:
standard allowance for you and, if applicable, your partner
child element (including an extra amount if the child is disabled)
work capability element
housing costs amount
You add these together to get your maximum amount. You then deduct the following:
If you’re entitled to a work allowance, deduct this from your earnings.
63p of each £1 of your earnings in the past month during your assessment period.
Deduct other income during the assessment period. Rules are similar to legacy benefits.
As your earnings rise, your Universal Credit reduces at a constant rate. So, for each £10 earned, you keep £3.70 and £6.30 will be taken off your Universal Credit.
Payment of Universal Credit
Payments are monthly and in arrears. This will be a week after the end of each assessment period. You will be assessed from the day you claim. You will get your first payment roughly 5 weeks after you claim (monthly assessment period plus a week's processing time).
You can request an Advanced Payment of 100% of your Universal Credit allowance within 5 days of your claim. You will usually pay your advance back over 12 months. The maximum deduction is 30% of your benefit per month to repay the advance.
Remember, you will receive all your eligible rent costs in your Universal Credit award. You must pay this money to your landlord to avoid rent arrears. If you do not think you will be able to manage this, you can ask for an Alternative Payment Arrangement (APA).
Alternative Payment Arrangements can be:
Universal Credit housing costs paid straight to your landlord
more frequent payments, such as twice a month
payments split and paid into 2 bank accounts
You can ask for an Alternative Payment Arrangement at your new claim interview.
How to claim Universal Credit
You claim online and you will manage your Universal Credit account online.
After making a claim, you’ll have to attend an interview.
You can get help making your claim online at local Jobcentre Plus offices, local authority offices, libraries, Citizens Advice or by calling the helpline on 0800 328 5644.
If you are unable to claim Universal Credit online, you must contact the Universal Credit helpline. You can claim over the phone if you have good reasons for not being able to claim online.
If you do not meet your claimant commitment, you could face a range of penalties known as sanctions from 40%-100% of your standard allowance. In rare cases, these can last for up to 3 years. Sanctions should not affect your housing costs. If you receive less than the standard allowance in addition to your housing costs, some of your entitlement to housing costs will be withheld to cover the sanction amount. For example, this could be because:
you have other income that reduces your entitlement
or the DWP is making deductions from your benefit such as for advance payments or utility arrears payments
This cannot be covered by what is left of your standard allowance.
Another person or organisation can apply for the right to deal with the Universal Credit claim of someone who cannot manage their own affairs. This could be, for example, because they may be mentally incapable or severely disabled. Unlike a representative, this is a legal appointment. An appointee can be:
individual appointees, such as a friend or relative
corporate appointees, such as a solicitor or local council
You may prefer to have corporate appointees, as any staff member from that organisation can act on your behalf.
Power of attorney
A lasting power of attorney (LPA) is a legal document. It lets someone appoint one or more people (known as ‘attorneys’) to help make decisions. This gives control to the attorney if someone cannot make decisions because of illness or they 'lack mental capacity’. You must be 18 or over and have mental capacity (the ability to make your own decisions) when you make your LPA.